10 Best Blockchain Programming Language

by Henary Uttam

Introduction to Blockchain Programming Languages

In the first place, blockchain programming languages are specialized coding languages that create applications and smart contracts on blockchain platforms. They are used to form decentralized systems created without intermediaries. The most popular is Solidity for Ethereum smart contracts, as this language has almost identical syntax with JavaScript and allows developers to define logic of their smart contracts. It appears that simplicity and security are what make it more appealing than other languages in use today. Chaincode, which is written in Go language, can be employed for Hyperledger Fabric-based smart-contracts – the permissioned framework of blockchain technology. These languages enable developers to construct decentralized applications, streamline business processes, and deliver innovative solutions within varying sectors.

Understanding Solidity for Ethereum Smart Contracts

If I may proceed further; Solidity is a high-level programming language specifically designed for writing smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain. This is because its syntax is almost similar to JavaScript making it accessible to web developers too. Solidity codes are compiled into Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) bytecode which then runs on the Ethereum network itself. Smart contracts made using Solidity have functions constructors modifiers inheritance conditional statements Loops or for loops While loops Do-while loops, among others as shown below; they allow developers to define how a contract behaves including functions data structures state variables etc.. But also events such as log and access control operations that are called modifiers while reusability issue would be dealt with by libraries among others.
   However secure and efficient solidity code requires avoiding common pitfalls such as preventing reentrancy attack minimizing gas fees.The documentation provided for solidity code users is wide enough making it suitable for building DApps(Decentralized Applications)and contributing towards development of ethereum ecosystem.

Exploring Vyper: A Secure Language for Ethereum Contracts

  In a nutshell, Vyper is an experimental programming language for Ethereum smart contracts that has been designed to have security and simplicity and can be audited. This is in contrast with Solidity whose complexity and vulnerability are addressed by ensuring that the syntax is straight forward and less prone to errors. By focusing on readability and minimizing attack surfaces for developing secure smart contracts, it has been seen as a good fit for this purpose. Thus Vyper does not provide support for features such as overloading of functions, recursive calling, or inline assembly which might pose security risks in solidity code Instead, its emphasis lies on explicitness and transparency during coding operations. Both vyper contracts are compiled into evm bytecode like solidity contracts then deployed on ethereum network. Although Vyper lacks some of the advanced features present in Solidity because it is still under development, it offers developers an alternative they can trust when they want better security that meets the standards set by auditors.

Chaincode Programming with Go for Hyperledger Fabric

As used in Hyperledger Fabric, chaincode refers to smart contracts written in languages such as Go and executed within the network’s peer nodes. For building secure and scalable smart contracts, a good consideration for developers is Go which is statically typed with built-in support for concurrency. The deployment of custom chaincode using Hyperledger Fabric’s modular architecture can be implemented to automate transactions or implement business logic. Fabric network depends on specified interfaces that are provided by Go chain code so as to get structured data at the ledger level, perform transaction invocations and enforce access control policies. In order to come up with elaborate smart contacts that satisfies their different purposes, developers can explore the rich standard library and tooling of GO. To make an application more functional; it usually involves writing down transaction rules, handling state changes or conducting cryptographic operations among others when developing a chaincode using Go. Applications developed with Hyperledger Fabric support various programming languages including Java, Go and Node.js providing the needed flexibility for developer skillset.

Feature table

FeatureSolidityVyperChaincode (Go)SimplicityEthereum Smart ContractsHyperledger FabricRholangScillaSerpentMichelson
Language TypeHigh-levelHigh-levelLow-levelHigh-levelHigh-levelLow-levelHigh-levelHigh-levelHigh-levelLow-level
Turing CompletenessYesYesNoYesYesYesYesYesYesYes
Formal Verification SupportYesLimitedLimitedYesYesLimitedYesYesLimitedYes
Gas EfficiencyModerateModerateHighHighModerateHighHighHighModerateHigh
Ecosystem SupportExtensiveLimitedLimitedLimitedExtensiveLimitedLimitedLimitedLimitedLimited
Platform IntegrationEthereumEthereumHyperledgerN/AEthereum, HyperledgerHyperledgerRChainZilliqaEthereumTezos
Learning CurveModerateModerateHighModerateModerateHighHighModerateLowHigh

10 Best Blockchain Programming Language

1. Solidity

You may know Solidity as a high-level programming language mainly used to code smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain. It works like JavaScript in syntax and aims at easing the creation of decentralized applications (DApps). Different applications can utilize Solidity because it supports inheritance, libraries, and complex user-defined types.


Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) compatibility is one of its highlights since it allows smart contracts written in Solidity to be efficiently executed on the Ethereum network. Nevertheless, Solidity has been criticized for its intricacy that could lead to security vulnerabilities hence, causing major hacks or incidents in the past. Despite these problems, extensive documentation, active community and overall good tooling support have made it still one of the most popular languages among developers who are working on blockchain projects.

2. Vyper

Vyper is a programming language developed as an alternative to write smart contracts on the Ethereum platform. Its main focus is simplicity, security and auditability at cost of expressiveness and feature richness. Vyper deliberately adopts a minimalist syntax easily resembling Python rather than conventional programming languages for ease of understanding purposes.


This was done intentionally to minimize errors in writing smart contracts by making them more readable and easy to follow through eliminating unnecessary complexities that might arise due to ambiguous codes. However, Viper does not possess certain sophisticated features inherent in Solidity such as inheritance and operator overloading hence suitable for those who are new to smart contract development or have strong concerns about security issues. Consequently, developers using Simplicity often prefer Viper as well because it emphasizes simplicity of codes over other advanced functions associated with blockchain programming.

3. Chaincode (Go)

When we mention chaincode within Hyperledger Fabric context, we mean Go programs that function like smart contracts. The significance of this distinction is that instead of running on a global virtual machine like ethereum’s e.g., chaincode running within each endorsing peer’s Docker container ensures privacy and scalability within hyperledger fabric blockchains. Go was chosen as the primary language for writing chaincode due to its performance, concurrency support, and ease of integration with existing enterprise systems.


Chaincode allows developers to define business logic for managing assets, executing transactions and enforcing access control policies on a permissioned blockchain network written in Go. The modular design enables smart contracts developed using chaincode to be deployed flexibly or upgraded at will hence; it is ideal for constructing blockchains targeting large companies demanding substantial privacy controls and strict governance.

4. Simplicity

Simplicity is a domain-specific language (DSL) that has been created specifically for writing smart contracts and distributed applications with a strong emphasis on formal verification and security. However, when compared to Solidity or Viper which are Turing complete programming languages that offer wide range of programming constructs, Simplicity has been characterized by minimalistic nature where only essential features have been included within it so as to express complex computations and state transitions.


Its syntax is based on lambda calculus and functional programming languages, making it suitable for analyzing the correctness and security of smart contracts via formal methods. By making the language less expressive, Simplicity aims at reducing the attack surface and making smart contracts amenable to mathematical analysis and verification. Despite being a still nascent technology, Simplicity promises to revolutionize how blockchain programs are written by providing more principled ways of creating decentralized systems that are both secure and reliable.

5. Ethereum Smart Contracts (Solidity, Vyper)

Ethereum is one of the top blockchain networks that lets developers choose smart contract programming languages such as Solidity or Vyper. Solidity happens to be the leading language for Ethereum smart contracts and has many features and tools that make it ideal for creating complex decentralized applications. Conversely, Vyper was introduced as an alternative choice to Solidity, which emphasizes simplicity and security, therefore appeals to those who consider legibility and reliability in code more important than extra sophistication.


These two languages are compatible with Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) making them relevant along its network allowing interoperability between smart contracts made on different languages. While solidity remains the standard for ethereum based development, vyper has been picking up as a complementary option especially for projects that emphasize on auditability and security.

6. Hyperledger Fabric (Go, Java)

Hyperledger Fabric is a permissioned blockchain framework that supports smart contract development using both Go and Java programming languages. Chaincode, which represents the smart contracts in Hyperledger Fabric, can be written in either Go or Java, providing developers with flexibility and choice based on their familiarity and project requirements.


Go is the preferred language for writing chaincode due to its performance, concurrency support, and ease of integration with existing enterprise systems. Java, on the other hand, offers advantages in terms of its extensive ecosystem, mature tooling, and enterprise-grade development practices. Chaincode in Hyperledger Fabric enables developers to define business logic for managing assets, executing transactions, and enforcing access control policies within a permissioned blockchain network, making it suitable for a wide range of enterprise applications.

7. Rholang

Rholang is a domain-specific language (DSL) designed for writing smart contracts on the RChain blockchain platform. It is based on the π-calculus, a formal model of computation, which enables concurrent and distributed execution of code. Rholang is uniquely suited for building decentralized applications (DApps) that require complex interactions between multiple parties, such as decentralized finance (DeFi) protocols and supply chain management systems.


Its syntax is concise and expressive, allowing developers to express sophisticated contracts and protocols with ease. Rholang leverages formal verification techniques to ensure the correctness and security of smart contracts, enabling rigorous testing and analysis prior to deployment. As RChain continues to evolve and expand its ecosystem, Rholang is poised to play a central role in enabling scalable and secure decentralized applications on the platform.

8. Scilla

Scilla is a functional programming language designed for writing smart contracts on the Zilliqa blockchain platform. It is designed to prioritize security, predictability, and formal verification, making it suitable for building high-assurance decentralized applications (DApps). Scilla’s syntax is inspired by OCaml and ML languages, featuring strong static typing, immutability, and higher-order functions.

This design choice aims to reduce the potential for bugs and vulnerabilities in smart contracts by enabling rigorous analysis and verification of code properties. Scilla leverages formal verification tools and techniques to ensure the correctness and security of smart contracts, enabling developers to build reliable and robust applications with confidence. As Zilliqa continues to gain traction as a scalable and secure blockchain platform, Scilla is expected to play a crucial role in enabling the next generation of decentralized applications across various domains.

9. Serpent

Serpent was a high-level programming language for writing smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain platform. It was designed to be more readable and Python-like compared to Solidity, the predominant language for Ethereum smart contracts. Serpent supported features such as function calls, data structures, and event logging, making it suitable for a wide range of decentralized applications (DApps).


However, Serpent has been deprecated and is no longer actively maintained or supported by the Ethereum community. Developers are encouraged to migrate their existing Serpent contracts to Solidity or Vyper, the latter being introduced as an alternative to Solidity with a focus on simplicity and security. While Serpent played a significant role in the early days of Ethereum smart contract development, its discontinuation underscores the importance of using well-supported and actively maintained languages for building decentralized applications.

10. Michelson

Michelson is the low-level stack-based language used for writing smart contracts on the Tezos blockchain platform. It is designed to be simple, deterministic, and verifiable, enabling rigorous analysis and formal verification of smart contracts. Michelson’s syntax is minimalistic, consisting of a set of stack manipulation and control flow instructions, making it suitable for expressing complex computations and state transitions efficiently.


Michelson leverages formal verification techniques to ensure the correctness and security of smart contracts, enabling developers to build reliable and secure decentralized applications (DApps) with confidence. While Michelson’s low-level nature may present challenges for developers accustomed to high-level languages, it offers advantages in terms of performance, scalability, and auditability. As Tezos continues to grow its ecosystem and attract developers, Michelson is expected to play a central role in enabling the next generation of decentralized applications across various domains.

Rust Programming for Substrate Blockchain Development

  Rust is a systems programming language known for its memory safety, performance, and concurrency features, making it an ideal choice for building blockchain infrastructure and decentralized applications. Substrate is a modular framework developed by Parity Technologies that allows users to build their own blockchains as well as scalable decentralised apps (dApps). Rust is used primarily for developing runtime modules and custom logic in Substrate-based blockchains. This helps prevent common pitfalls like null pointers dereference, data races etc., through Rust’s ownership model/strict compiler checks which make sure no memory leaks occur in any substrate-based systems leading to reliability & security assurance.Reusing libraries & frameworks made available by rust language will accelerate blockchain development while leaving developers free enough to concentrate on building revolutionary characteristics.Substrate has been designed in such a way that users can create their own custom modules such as consensus algorithms,governance mechanisms,and asset management systems,using Rust as the main programming language employed.Rust’s expressiveness in coding and ability to abstract enables developers to make high-performing blockchain solutions that meet particular needs.

Smart Contract Development with JavaScript for Web3 Platforms

  JavaScript is a popular programming language for building web applications, and its versatility extends to blockchain development through libraries like Web3.js and EOSIO.js. These libraries provide interfaces for interacting with blockchain networks, deploying smart contracts, and sending transactions using JavaScript code. When implemented in JavaScript, smart contract development allows developers to use their existing web development skills and tools to build decentralized applications (DApps) on platforms such as Ethereum or EOSIO. For example, web3.js helps interact with Ethereum Blockchain by providing functions which allow callable methods such as creating of contracts, listening for their events among others. Similarly,EOSIO.js has been designed specifically for developing on the EOSIO blockchain.Thus it acts an API that will be used when dealing with the smart contract and managing accounts.The two libraries can be used by JavaScript developers to create various kinds of DApps: DeFi apps like non-fungible token marketplaces and DEXs or decentralized exchanges. Integrating JS technology with blockchain gives an opportunity of empowering people’s creativity in the decentralized innovations.

Python for Blockchain Development and Cryptography

Python is an adaptable programming language recognized for its apparentness, extensive libraries, and ease of use in blockchain development and cryptography. Its vast ecosystem includes libraries such as PyCryptodome and PyECC that offer cryptographic tools like hashing, encryption, digital signatures and key management. These libraries consequently enable programmers to come up with a blockchain that is both safe and effective containing cryptocurrency wallets as well as decentralized applications (DApps) among others on the platform. Prototyping and developing proofs of concept (PoCs) too can be done using Python because of its simplicity and low time needed for the introductory stage of blockchain prototypes. Furthermore, Python has support for web frameworks such as Flask and Django which eases the process of creating user interfaces for web-based blockchains. This also provides an opportunity to integrate artificial intelligence (AI), data analytics or machine learning techniques into the blockchain since most data scientists are using python when working with data sets in large scale. So by combining new ideas from Python with blockchain technology developers are able to provide solutions that solve real-life problems using decentralization technologies only.


In the end, numerous factors such as project requirements, developer experience, platform compatibility and network support help to determine the best blockchain programming language. Every blockchain programming language has its own pros and cons which make it useful for specific use cases or applications.

For smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain, Solidity is still the main choice because of its compatibility with the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) and wide adoption within the Ethereum ecosystem. Solidity empowers developers who want to design decentralized applications (DApps) as well as guarantee trustless transactions in Ethereum.

The rise of blockchain platforms like Ethereum and the increasing adoption of web3 technologies further enhances JavaScript’s potential for blockchain development. JavaScript’s versatility means that it can be used to create DApps, interact with blockchains, and develop smart contracts because there are extensive libraries created for this purpose.

Python is a simple read language with rich libraries which makes it appropriate for various tasks in blockchain development including smart contract development, interaction with blockchains and building DApps. One reason why Python is incredibly popular is because it can be employed in a wide variety of tasks.

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